Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus. Typical multi mode links have data rates of 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s over link lengths of up to 600 meters. In fiber optics technology single mode fiber is one of two types of fiber currently in use. It is a single strand of glass fiber for a single ray (or mode) of light transmission. Single mode fiber is used for long distance transmission. Many customers may don’t know the meaning of multi mode and single mode fiber, here is more details.
Single Mode Fiber has a greater distance potential and can support runs between 2 meters and 10,000 meters. Multi-mode generally has a reach up to ~550 meters, whereas single mode has the potential to reach 10,000 meters (40,000 meters with ER)Single mode fiber -> lower power loss characteristic than multi-mode fiber, which means light can travel longer distances through it than it can through multi mode fiber.
The optics for SMF are twice the cost of MMF optics.BUT when installed as part of a project, the extra cost of SMF is negligible compared to MMF. The fragility and increased cost to produce single mode fiber makes it more expensive to use, which is why multi-mode is typically used when you don’t need the distance of single mode.
Both single-mode and modern multi-mode fiber can handle 10G speeds.The distance requirement is critical Multi-mode which can get you 300-400 meters.Single-mode can get you 10km, 40km, 80km, and even farther – you just need to use the appropriate optic for the distance required. Prices go up accordingly.
They are not compatible.You cannot mix multi-mode and single mode fiber between two endpoints.The optics are not compatible either.
Multi-mode fiber (MMF) – uses a much bigger core and usually uses a longer wavelength of light. Because of this, the optics used in MMF have a higher capability to gather light from the laser. In practical terms, this means the optics are cheaper.Single-mode fiber (SMF) has much tighter tolerances for optics used. The core is smaller and the laser wavelength is narrower. This means that SMF has the capability for higher bandwidth and much longer distances in transmission. Single-mode fiber has a smaller core (9 micron), resulting in less light diffraction over distance than multi-mode fiber (50, 62.5 micron).
Multi-mode fibers are described by their core and cladding diameters. Thus, 62.5/125 µm multi-mode fiber has a core size of 62.5 micrometres (µm) and a cladding diameter of 125 µm.In addition, multi-mode fibers are described using a system of classification determined by the ISO 11801 standard — OM1, OM2, and OM3 — which is based on the modal bandwidth of the multi-mode fiber. OM4 (defined in TIA-492-AAAD) was finalized in August 2009, and was published by the end of 2009 by the TIA. OM4 cable will support 125m links at 40 and 100 Gbit/s. The letters "OM" stand for optical multi-mode.
There are several designations used to describe various types of SM fiber that are often confusing. Here are the ones in common use today.
|Description||IEC SMF Type||ITU Spec.||TIA Spec|
|Standard Single-mode Fiber||B1.1||G.652||TIA 492CAAA / OS1|
|Cutoff Shifted Fiber||B1.2||G.654|
|Low Water Peak Fiber||B1.3||G.652||TIA 492CAAB / OS2|
|Dispersion Shifted Fiber||B2||G.653|
|Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber||B4||G.655||TIA-492E000 / TIA-492EA00|
|Bend-Insensitive Fiber||G .657|